BARTLETT, J.C., GERNSBACHER, M.A., TILL, R.E. (1987). Remembering left-right orientation of pictures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 27-35.
In a study of recognition memory for pictures, we observed an asymmetry in classifying test items as “same” versus “different” in left-right orientation: Identical copies of previously viewed items were classified more accurately than left-right reversals of those items. Response bias could not explain this asymmetry, and, moreover, correct “same” and “different” classifications were independently manipulable: Whereas repetition of input pictures (one vs. two presentations) affected primarily correct “same” classifications, retention interval (3 hr vs. 1 week) affected primarily correct “different” classifications. In addition, repetition but not retention interval affected judgments that previously seen pictures (both identical and reveraed) were “old.” These and additional findings supported a dual-process hypothesis that links “same” classifications to high familiarity, and “different” classifications to conscious sampling of images of previously viewed pictures.